Modular arithmetic over hypergraphs in HFHE

Here's a simple example showcasing the use of the hypergraph approach for mathematical operations with prime numbers.

This code exemplifies a fundamental mathematical operation involving two numerical variables, denoted as a & b. Subsequently, it undertakes a homomorphic operation leveraging hypergraphs as a computational framework.

Additionally, we perform type analysis on a hypothetical hyperedge operation and determine its type.

It's important to understand that this is not production code, it is designed for the sole purpose of demonstrating the concept and approach to performing homomorphic computations using hypergraphs.

For clarity, all examples have been significantly simplified and are not directly used in the Octra production code.

Modular Arithmetic Operations


 (a+b)modn\ (a + b) \mod n

Where a and b are integers, and n is the modulus.

Remainder Calculation

xmodnx \mod n

Where x is an integer, and n is the modulus.

Homomorphic Addition of Encrypted Numbers

Encrypted Addition

(c1,c2,n)=(c1c2)mod(nn)(c1, c2, n) = (c1 \cdot c2) \mod (n \cdot n)

Where c1 and c2 are encrypted numbers, and n is the modulus.

Encryption and Decryption Operations


(m,(n,g))=(gmrn)mod(nn)(m, (n, g)) = (g^m \cdot r^n) \mod (n \cdot n)

Where m is the message, (n, g) is the public key, and r is a random value.


(c,(n,_),(λ,μ))=(cλ1n)μmodn(c, (n, \_), (\lambda, \mu)) = \left(\frac{c^\lambda - 1}{n}\right) \cdot \mu \mod n

Where c is the encrypted message, (n, _) is the public key, and (λ, μ) is the private key.

Type Analysis for Hyperedge Operation

This is useful for ensuring the correctness of operations on hypergraphs and preventing type-related errors in the code.

Determine the type of a hyperedge operation, which can be int, uint or func based on the analysis performed.

open Octra.Z

module Variable = struct
  type t = string 
  module Map = struct
    include Map.Make(String)
    let of_list bindings = 
        List.fold_left (fun acc (k,v) -> add k v acc) empty bindings

module TypeExpr = struct
  type t = IntType | UnitType | ArrType of t * t 

  let rec eq t1 t2 = 
    match t1, t2 with 
    | UnitType, UnitType -> true
    | IntType, IntType -> true
    | ArrType(l1, r1), ArrType(l2, r2) -> eq l1 l2 && eq r1 r2
    | _ -> false

module Expression = struct
  type t =
    | VarExpr of Variable.t
    | AbsExpr of Variable.t * t 
    | AppExpr of t * t 
    | AnnExpr of t * TypeExpr.t
    | IntExpr of int
    | UnitExpr

  let rec synthesize expression ~env = 
    match expression with 
    | UnitExpr -> Some(TypeExpr.UnitType)
    | IntExpr _ -> Some(TypeExpr.IntType)
    | VarExpr var -> Variable.Map.find_opt var env
    | AnnExpr(e, ty) -> 
        let env' = Variable.Map.empty in
        check e ~env:env' ~against:ty
    | AppExpr(e1, e2) -> 
        (match synthesize e1 ~env with
        | Some TypeExpr.ArrType(a, b) -> 
            (match check e2 ~env ~against:a with
            | Some _ -> Some b
            | _ -> None)
        | _ -> None)
    | AbsExpr(x, e) -> 
        let env' = Variable.Map.add x (TypeExpr.UnitType) env in 
        (match synthesize e ~env:env' with
        | Some ty -> Some (TypeExpr.ArrType(TypeExpr.UnitType, ty))
        | _  -> None)

  and check expression ~env ~against = 
    match expression, against with 
    | e, ty -> 
        (match synthesize e ~env with
        | Some ty' when TypeExpr.eq ty' against -> Some ty
        | _ -> None)

type vertex = int
type hyperedge = { vertices: vertex list; weight: Z.t }
type hypergraph = hyperedge list

let encrypt m (n, g) =
  let lower = in
  let upper = Z.pred n in
  let diff = Z.sub upper lower in
  let r = Z.add lower (Z.rem (Z.of_int (Random.State.bits (Random.get_state ()))) diff) in
  let gm = Z.powm g m (Z.mul n n) in
  let rn = Z.powm r n (Z.mul n n) in
  Z.rem (Z.mul gm rn) (Z.mul n n)

let decrypt c (n, _) (lambda, mu) =
  let cl = Z.powm c lambda (Z.mul n n) in
  let l x = Z.div (Z.sub x n in
  Z.rem (Z.mul (l cl) mu) n

let encrypted_add c1 c2 n =
  Z.rem (Z.mul c1 c2) (Z.mul n n)

let generate_keys () =
  let p = Z.of_int 61 in
  let q = Z.of_int 53 in
  let n = Z.mul p q in
  let lambda = Z.lcm (Z.pred p) (Z.pred q) in
  let g = Z.succ n in
  let mu = Z.invert lambda n in
  ((n, g), (lambda, mu))

let create_hyperedge m public_key =
  [encrypt m public_key]

let add_hyperedges he1 he2 public_key =
  if List.length he1 <> 1 || List.length he2 <> 1 then
    failwith "Hyperedges must contain only one encrypted number each"
    let c1 = List.hd he1 in
    let c2 = List.hd he2 in
    let n = fst public_key in
    [encrypted_add c1 c2 n]

let analyze_hypergraph_operation a_hyperedge b_hyperedge =
  let open Expression in
  let env = Variable.Map.of_list [("encrypted_add", TypeExpr.ArrType(TypeExpr.IntType, TypeExpr.ArrType(TypeExpr.IntType, TypeExpr.IntType)))] in
  let add_expr = VarExpr "encrypted_add" in
  let a_expr = IntExpr 0 in
  let b_expr = IntExpr 1 in
  let operation_expr = AppExpr(AppExpr(add_expr, a_expr), b_expr) in
  match synthesize operation_expr ~env with
  | Some ty -> Printf.printf "Type of hyperedge operation: %s\n" (match ty with
                                                                  | TypeExpr.IntType -> "Integer"
                                                                  | TypeExpr.UnitType -> "Unit"
                                                                  | TypeExpr.ArrType(_, _) -> "Function")
  | None -> Printf.printf "Type of hyperedge operation could not be determined\n"

let () =
  Random.self_init ();
  let public_key, private_key = generate_keys () in
  let a = Z.of_int 111 in
  let b = Z.of_int 222 in

  let a_hyperedge = create_hyperedge a public_key in
  let b_hyperedge = create_hyperedge b public_key in

  let sum_hyperedge = add_hyperedges a_hyperedge b_hyperedge public_key in
  let decrypted_sum_hyperedge = (fun c -> decrypt c public_key private_key) sum_hyperedge in

  Printf.printf "Encrypted Hyperedge A: %s\n" (Z.to_string (List.hd a_hyperedge));
  Printf.printf "Encrypted Hyperedge B: %s\n" (Z.to_string (List.hd b_hyperedge));
  Printf.printf "Encrypted Sum Hyperedge: %s\n" (Z.to_string (List.hd sum_hyperedge));
  Printf.printf "Decrypted Sum Hyperedge: %s\n" (Z.to_string (List.hd decrypted_sum_hyperedge));

  analyze_hypergraph_operation [List.hd a_hyperedge] [List.hd b_hyperedge];

The compilation of the code takes place as follows:

ocamlfind ocamlc -o test -package zarith -linkpkg

The output of the program execution is as follows:

david@Lambda0xE desktop % ./test                                                     
Encrypted Hyperedge A: 7878351
Encrypted Hyperedge B: 6449365
Encrypted Sum Hyperedge: 7478985
Decrypted Sum Hyperedge: 333
Type of hyperedge operation: Integer

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